Police corruption essays


police corruption essays

Stuck on your essay? Browse essays about Police Corruption and find inspiration. Learn by example and become a better writer with Kibin’s suite of essay help services. Executive System (Police) Main article: Police corruption. Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, other personal gain, and/or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. Nov 04,  · Police Corruption A Problem with the law Name [Date] Summary This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society.

FREE Police Corruption Essay

Historically, police corruption has been a persisting, serious, and in some cases pervasive feature of police services. Corruption can be seen as a kind of occupational hazard for police, with the nature of police work offering an unusually large number of opportunities for corrupt behavior. Moreover, features of police organization have acted to undermine police corruption essays disposition to decline such opportunities.

Reducing police corruption requires the development of integrity systems for police services, which function to minimize the attractiveness of corrupt behavior and reinforce and develop the disposition to act in a morally upright manner. Defining Police Corruption Corruption is a process of subversion or corrosion of a noncorrupt, pure, or ideal state of affairs.

While there are broadly accepted paradigm cases of police corruption, police corruption essays, such as accepting bribes for overlooking criminal behavior, police corruption essays, or even engaging in such behavior, there is less consensus about how to define police corruption.

Accounts of police corruption tend to splinter along two lines, police corruption essays. First, there are differences about the role of police, and hence of the ideal that provides the contrast against which police corruption is identified. Some theories of policing argue that the primary function of police is to enforce the law; others that it is to protect rights; others again that it is to use force, or the threat of force, police corruption essays, to deal with emergencies that no one else can handle.

Since different theories of policing give different accounts of what an ideal police service looks like, they will also differ, at least to some extent, about what counts as police corruption, police corruption essays.

Nevertheless, while not all theories hold that the defining purpose of policing is the enforcement of law, there is general agreement that police, at least in legitimate states, police corruption essays, are servants of the law, and that behavior that conflicts with that role is, at least potentially, corrupt. Second, there are disagreements about what might be called the scope of police corruption. Not every act that detracts from the effective functioning of a police service counts as police corruption.

For example, an ill-advised decision by police management to make use of the in itself legitimate strategy of saturation policing in a crime-ridden area exacerbates existing antagonism toward police by racial minorities, leading to riots and greater lawlessness, police corruption essays. The decision makes the police service less effective than it should have been, but it is not an instance of corruption. Police corruption essays is necessary, then, to find a definition of police corruption which is not unduly broad.

In a relatively narrow construal, police corruption simply consists of misuse by police of their position to gain personal advantage. This construal still allows for differences about which behaviors are corrupt. Some who hold this view consider that unlawful or unethical behavior should only be considered corrupt if it is motivated by the desire for personal gain, whether or not a benefit is actually received; others think that corrupt activity is identified by its outcome— corrupt activity produces a private benefit for a police officer or is a kind of activity that tends to produce such an outcome.

Clearly, many egregious instances of police corruption do involve police acting for personal advantage, and application of the personal advantage approach will identify many, at least, of the paradigm cases of police corruption. Since noble cause corruption involves police deliberately breaking the law it surely counts as police corruption, though by definition it is not motivated by, and need not produce, personal benefit.

An alternative, broader approach understands corruption generally, and police corruption in particular, police corruption essays, as what might be called a moralized causal concept. Police corruption is behavior that corrodes, or has the tendency to corrode, a properly functioning police service, and for which the police officer s responsible can properly be blamed i. This approach, like the narrower approach, will identify police acting for personal advantage as instances of police corruption.

But it can also see other kinds of behavior by police, including noble cause corruption, as forms of police corruption. An advantage of the causal approach is its flexibility in determining what counts as police corruption.

In one social setting, for instance, acceptance by police of small gratuities from shopkeepers, such as food and drink, may compromise their willingness to take action when the shopkeepers break the law and so will count as corrupt. In another setting, where there are different norms governing such interactions, and a more morally robust police service, acceptance of gratuities may have no such compromising effect and so will not police corruption essays as corrupt.

Incidence and Effects Most police corruption is covert, police corruption essays, or at least shielded from official scrutiny. Even when complaints are made, they are difficult to substantiate, often involving the word of the complainant against that of the police officer they are complaining about, and police complaints systems themselves are often less than ideal. For reasons such as these, it is impossible to know exactly how common police corruption actually is. Moreover, the extent of corruption clearly varies considerably across different settings.

In some Indian police services, for example, corruption appears to be virtually universal, with bribery a precondition for police attention; in totalitarian states the police are part of the repressive structure that keeps the regime in power and, using a broad understanding of police corruption, much of their official activity is corrupt in nature. Even if police corruption does not reach these levels in generally orderly liberal democracies such as the United States, United Kingdom, police corruption essays, and Australia, there is good evidence that it is nevertheless disturbingly common.

Indications of its prevalence are given in the reports of important inquiries into police behavior, typically prompted by a pubic scandal, such as the Knapp and Mollen Commission inquiries into the New York City Police Department, the Christopher Commission into the Los Angeles Police Department, and the Wood Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service.

Each report details widespread corruption, ranging from acceptance of small bribes to overlook illegal activity such as bookmaking, to active—and, in some units, widespread—involvement in serious criminal behavior such as drug dealing, assault, and theft.

Other sources of information about police corruption include complaints against police, especially those that are substantiated, and surveys and interviews with police, police corruption essays, defendants, and members of the public, police corruption essays. While every occupation may have corrupt practitioners, police corruption is particularly damaging, police corruption essays.

It is a significant factor in miscarriages of justice, leading to conviction of the innocent and acquittal or nonprosecution of criminals. It can directly contribute to criminal activity by enabling criminals to carry out their activities without fear of discovery or prosecution, or even by police themselves engaging in such activities. It contributes to criminal activity indirectly by subverting the trust between community and police, which is a necessary condition for effective policing, and by creating a more disorderly society in which it is harder for police to carry out their function.

It imposes real financial burdens on the community through the cost of increased crime and crime prevention measures, as well as litigation and public inquiries. And, of course, corrupt police themselves, many of whom were morally upright at the start of their careers, can pay a significant price in psychological disturbance and, where their corruption is discovered, social disgrace and legal penalty.

Causes of Corruption In order to address police corruption, it is necessary to understand its causes. At the highest level of generality, corruption results from the interaction of a disposition to act corruptly with a tempting opportunity to do so—that is, one police corruption essays the perceived benefits consequent on a corrupt action are much greater than the perceived potential costs. Most police corruption essays are neither moral saints, police corruption essays, who will do right come what may, nor moral monsters, who will do wrong whenever they judge it is in their interests to do so.

Individuals are, at least up to a point, motivated police corruption essays follow the dictates of morality but subject to temptations that, if strong enough, can lead them astray, police corruption essays. Presumably, police as a group are not radically different in this respect than the rest of people. Indeed, many recruits are motivated to join the service at least in part by a morally admirable desire to serve their community. The prevalence of police corruption reflects the fact that police are both likely to have many tempting opportunities to act corruptly and subject to a range of factors that undermine their capacity to recognize and resist corrupting temptations.

There are a number of reasons why police are likely to face opportunities to act corruptly. Much police work involves a high level of operational autonomy, with a good deal of discretion as to how it is to be carried out, and little direct oversight.

This lack of oversight allows police to avoid what people could think of as the costs of police work. After all, a lot of conscientious police work police corruption essays unpleasant—dangerous, or tedious, or time-consuming.

The temptation to take shortcuts to avoid these costs, or to seek benefits to offset them, is considerable, police corruption essays.

Moreover, police are equipped with legal powers, such as powers of arrest on suspicion, surveillance, and so on, and equipment, such as guns and batons, which can be used as means to pursue corrupt ends, such as extortion. A good deal of police work involves contact with people who have interests in inducing police to act corruptly—ranging from speeding drivers who are prepared to offer a police corruption essays to avoid losing their license, police corruption essays, to tow truck police corruption essays who pay police for information about traffic accidents, to criminals who pay for intelligence that puts them in a better position to plan their activities.

Black markets in goods and services for which there is a large and persisting demand, such as recreational drugs, sex, and alcohol, generate ample opportunities for corrupt behavior, such as stealing the proceeds of crime, or receiving bribes from merchants in such markets. At the same time they face such opportunities to act corruptly, police are also subject to a range of factors that undermine their capacity to resist these opportunities, or even to realize that, in taking them, they are acting corruptly.

One such factor or set of factors stems from the collective nature of police work. Police rely on each other to an unusually large extent to achieve their professional goals. This, together with the socially distinctive nature of police work, tends to generate a high degree of group identification and solidarity.

That solidarity is displayed both at the level of the unit, with perceived conflict between the interests of the rank and police corruption essays, on the one hand, police corruption essays, and police management on the other, and at the level of the service as a whole.

In many ways such solidarity and loyalty is a good thing; without it effective policing would be impossible. But it can also police corruption essays to police corruption. First, as survey research has indicated, it means that that even police corruption essays well motivated new recruits can be corrupted by their induction into a group that is itself partially or wholly corrupt, either by joining in corrupt practices or by tolerating them.

The blue wall exists when even the many police who disapprove of the corrupt practices of colleagues will not make complaints against them, when members close ranks against outside investigation of wrongdoing, and when those who do complain are ostracized or worse. That silence, of course, has the police corruption essays of protecting corrupt police from effective action.

Moreover, police who refrain from acting against their corrupt colleagues out of a sense of loyalty are often compromised by this failure and ripe for more active involvement in corrupt schemes.

The moral character of police can also come under pressure when they are called on to enforce the law in what might be called morally confusing environments, where laws, or their modes police corruption essays enforcement, conflict with broadly held social norms.

This is a problem particularly with laws against vice—drugs, prostitution, police corruption essays, gambling— which are often introduced or retained police corruption essays a result of pressure from well-organized lobby groups. As noted above, the black markets that arise as a consequence are fertile sources of corruption.

Such laws are also often seen by those who are charged with police corruption essays them as morally unjustified. Police corruption essays laws against recreational drugs such as marijuana and amphetamines. Young police in particular are often members of subcultures where the use of such drugs is common and seen as unproblematic—attitudes that may be widespread in the broader community. Moreover, there is often a de facto toleration of markets in vice by the powers-that-be, provided that they are sufficiently removed from the attention of those who find them offensive.

Understandably, police can come to feel that tolerating, or even participating in, illegal behavior is not always wrong and that they are justified in picking and choosing which laws they will respect and enforce, and how.

Addressing Police Corruption Given the nature of police work it is utopian to believe that police corruption will ever be completely exterminated. However, police corruption essays, it is not utopian to believe that it can be much reduced.

Legislative and other policies directed at offenses and offenders, rather than at police corruption essays, can play a major role police corruption essays. For example, where decriminalization of abortion and of homosexuality has occurred, it has significantly reduced the opportunities for police corruption.

But policies directed at police, from within and without the service, can also play a significant role, police corruption essays. Broadly speaking, such policies should aim to reinforce the desire to act well and reduce temptations to act badly, either by police corruption essays the opportunity to do so or increasing the likely costs. There is now a significant body police corruption essays research, looking both at organizations generally and police services more specifically, which indicates how both of these things can be done through the development of what is often referred to as an integrity system.

An integrity system for police, aiming to promote good behavior police corruption essays reduce bad, can be seen as having four interacting parts: first, an organization-wide, intelligence-based, ethics risk-assessment audit; second, measures to reduce those risks; third, ways of detecting and deterring corruption; and finally, means to increase ethical awareness.

Some of the most salient ethical risks facing police have already been identified, such as the temptations of noble cause corruption, the possibility of excessive use police corruption essays force and other kinds of abuse of members of the public, and the potential for bribery, or even active involvement in criminality. Measures to reduce these risks begin at the point of recruitment. Strategies here will aim both to exclude unsuitable applicants and to attract suitable ones.

Given the tendency toward corruption in policing, it is crucial that those who are recruited have the highest moral character. If there is a good chance that even those of good character can be corrupted, police corruption essays, there is obviously no chance of those of bad character being reformed by undertaking police work. It is also important to recruit those who are capable of becoming competent. The incompetent find it difficult to identify strongly with the ends of the profession, and can easily become disaffected and cynical and therefore susceptible to corruption.

Vetting for potential recruits can make use of psychological tests, personal interviews, and background checks of financial records and personal connections to exclude those who have criminal connections, moral or psychological weaknesses, or who lack the capacity to become competent officers. Adequate pay and conditions are obviously important factors in attracting competent recruits, as well as making some of the possible sources of corruption less tempting.

Research also seems to indicate that recruits with higher educational backgrounds are more competent and act with greater integrity.

Specific measures to reduce the risks identified above include the following:. As its name implies there are two components to a complaints and discipline system: first, gathering and classifying complaints the complaint elementthen assessing and responding to those complaints that are prima facie grounds for sanctioning a member of the occupation the discipline element. An effective method for gathering complaints is a necessary condition for a fair discipline system; at the same time, complaints are more likely to be forthcoming if it is perceived that they will be taken seriously and responded to appropriately.

Historically, there have tended to be major structural problems with both these components of the complaint and discipline system.


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police corruption essays


The Corruption Of Police Corruption - Police corruption is a complex phenomenon, which does not readily submit to simple analysis. It is a problem that has and will continue to affect us all, whether we are civilians or law enforcement officers. Nov 04,  · Police Corruption A Problem with the law Name [Date] Summary This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. In conclusion, police corruption anywhere, hurts police everywhere. Police are held to a higher standard by the citizens, and the media. Police officers need to be aware of the social stigmas working against them. Law enforcement Officer need to be trained, and educated on how to hand ethical situation.